The Patriot Act was enacted by Congress. It may be amended or rescinded by Congress.Good. It certainly is the best of both worlds. It reduces the chances of electing a popular dictator/authoritarian. And, it reduces the chances of a corrupt party clone being elected. Our founding fathers were very big on checks and balances, and the separation of powers. As well as to ensure accountability. Trump pushed these Constitutional controls to their limits.
Not sure what you mean by "extremely limited beyond their primary purpose.". The Executive Branch has given the President more powers today, than was outlined in the Constitution. Thanks to things like the "Patriot Act", "Executive Decisions", being "Commander in Chief", the "Veto Powers", Cabinet and Justices appointment powers, the power of the President is not that limited.
The President can attack any country for the first 90 days, for any reason, before he even needs to consult congress. The President can veto any bill for any reason, preventing it from becoming law. The President can make executive orders(proclamations) to control federal and state governments(and the people indirectly), whenever he wants. The President can end or create treaties with other countries, if he wishes. The President can shut down the government(not all) until the federal budget is balanced. The President is also the Chief Negotiator for the government, and speaks with other leaders directly. And, the President can even pardon criminals if he wants.
Unfortunately, todays presidents have adapted to changes in society. And so have their powers. But this is about the EC system right?
"Commander in Chief" refers to the president's command of the military only, not an applicable title outside of military matters.
Congress can override the President's veto.
The War Powers Act of 1973 says that the President may commit U.S. forces to battle for no more than 60 days and up to 30 additional days for withdrawal without congressional approval. However, to do that would require the tacit approval of Congress because right after the section that authorizes those 60 days is this:
(c) Concurrent resolution for removal by President of United States Armed Forces
Notwithstanding subsection (b), at any time that United States Armed Forces are engaged in hostilities outside the territory of the United States, its possessions and territories without a declaration of war or specific statutory authorization, such forces shall be removed by the President if the Congress so directs by concurrent resolution.
So the President may commit those forces to battle for 60 days unless the Congress directs him to withdraw them sooner than that.
Treaties must be approved by the Senate by a two thirds majority.
The President cannot arbitrarily shut down the government if the budget isn't balanced. If he vetoes a spending bill to keep the government running, the Congress can override his veto. It is the responsibility of Congress to authorize the spending of money, not the President. When the Congress fails to pass a spending bill, spending authorization expires.
Cabinet members are confirmed or rejected by the Senate by a majority vote.
The Senate also confirms District Court judges, Court of Appeals judges, and Supreme Court justices.
Of course, the President may exert his influence on all matters, but his actual power is very limited. Again, his primary function is to implement the laws passed by Congress.