Scientists create mutant enzyme that eats plastic

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Scientists create mutant enzyme that eats plastic

Postby mothra » 17 Apr 2018, 18:01

Scientists accidentally create mutant enzyme that eats plastic bottles

The breakthrough, spurred by the discovery of plastic-eating bugs at a Japanese dump, could help solve the global plastic pollution crisis

Scientists have created a mutant enzyme that breaks down plastic drinks bottles – by accident. The breakthrough could help solve the global plastic pollution crisis by enabling for the first time the full recycling of bottles.

The new research was spurred by the discovery in 2016 of the first bacterium that had naturally evolved to eat plastic, at a waste dump in Japan. Scientists have now revealed the detailed structure of the crucial enzyme produced by the bug.

The international team then tweaked the enzyme to see how it had evolved, but tests showed they had inadvertently made the molecule even better at breaking down the PET (polyethylene terephthalate) plastic used for soft drink bottles. “What actually turned out was we improved the enzyme, which was a bit of a shock,” said Prof John McGeehan, at the University of Portsmouth, UK, who led the research. “It’s great and a real finding.”

The mutant enzyme takes a few days to start breaking down the plastic – far faster than the centuries it takes in the oceans. But the researchers are optimistic this can be speeded up even further and become a viable large-scale process.

“What we are hoping to do is use this enzyme to turn this plastic back into its original components, so we can literally recycle it back to plastic,” said McGeehan. “It means we won’t need to dig up any more oil and, fundamentally, it should reduce the amount of plastic in the environment.”

About 1m plastic bottles are sold each minute around the globe and, with just 14% recycled, many end up in the oceans where they have polluted even the remotest parts, harming marine life and potentially people who eat seafood. “It is incredibly resistant to degradation. Some of those images are horrific,” said McGeehan. “It is one of these wonder materials that has been made a little bit too well.”

However, currently even those bottles that are recycled can only be turned into opaque fibres for clothing or carpets. The new enzyme indicates a way to recycle clear plastic bottles back into clear plastic bottles, which could slash the need to produce new plastic.

“You are always up against the fact that oil is cheap, so virgin PET is cheap,” said McGeehan. “It is so easy for manufacturers to generate more of that stuff, rather than even try to recycle. But I believe there is a public driver here: perception is changing so much that companies are starting to look at how they can properly recycle these.”

The new research, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, began by determining the precise structure of the enzyme produced by the Japanese bug. The team used the Diamond Light Source, near Oxford, UK, an intense beam of X-rays that is 10bn times brighter than the sun and can reveal individual atoms.

The structure of the enzyme looked very similar to one evolved by many bacteria to break down cutin, a natural polymer used as a protective coating by plants. But when the team manipulated the enzyme to explore this connection, they accidentally improved its ability to eat PET.

“It is a modest improvement – 20% better – but that is not the point,” said McGeehan. “It’s incredible because it tells us that the enzyme is not yet optimised. It gives us scope to use all the technology used in other enzyme development for years and years and make a super-fast enzyme.”

Industrial enzymes are widely used in, for example, washing powders and biofuel production, They have been made to work up to 1,000 times faster in a few years, the same timescale McGeehan envisages for the plastic-eating enzyme. A patent has been filed on the specific mutant enzyme by the Portsmouth researchers and those from the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Colorado.

One possible improvement being explored is to transplant the mutant enzyme into an “extremophile bacteria” that can survive temperatures above the 70C melting point of PET – the plastic is likely to degrade 10-100 times faster when molten.

Earlier work had shown that some fungi can break down PET plastic, which makes up about 20% of global plastic production. But bacteria are far easier to harness for industrial uses.

Other types of plastic could be broken down by bacteria currently evolving in the environment, McGeehan said: “People are now searching vigorously for those.” PET sinks in seawater but some scientists have conjectured that plastic-eating bugs might one day be sprayed on the huge plastic garbage patches in the oceans to clean them up.

“I think [the new research] is very exciting work, showing there is strong potential to use enzyme technology to help with society’s growing waste problem,” said Oliver Jones, a chemist at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, and not part of the research team.

“Enzymes are non-toxic, biodegradable and can be produced in large amounts by microorganisms,” he said. “There is still a way to go before you could recycle large amounts of plastic with enzymes, and reducing the amount of plastic produced in the first place might, perhaps, be preferable. [But] this is certainly a step in a positive direction.”

Prof Adisa Azapagic, at the University of Manchester in the UK, agreed the enzyme could be useful but added: “A full life-cycle assessment would be needed to ensure the technology does not solve one environmental problem – waste – at the expense of others, including additional greenhouse gas emissions.”

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/apr/16/scientists-accidentally-create-mutant-enzyme-that-eats-plastic-bottles?CMP=soc_567
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Re: Scientists create mutant enzyme that eats plastic

Postby johnsmith » 17 Apr 2018, 18:49

I saw this story today and was going to put it up but got distracted then forgot about it. It's excellent news. If they can get it working on a commercial scale it would solve a lot of our waste problems.

Was watching a doco just the other night where some scientists went out in the ocean 1000 MILES from the nearest land, they pulled in small water samples and they were all FULL of microplastics. These are small particles of plastic that are small enough that fish eat them, and if it doesn't kill the fish first, we then catch and eat the fish. It's becoming a huge problem.

I don't recall the name of the doco, but I did find this

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/feb/12/microplastics-pollute-most-remote-and-uncharted-areas-of-the-ocean
FD.
I hope that bitch who was running their brothels for them gets raped with a cactus.
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Re: Scientists create mutant enzyme that eats plastic

Postby mothra » 17 Apr 2018, 19:37

Plastic has made it's way into the most remote places on earth ... and we juct churn out mega-tons every bloody day. 20 bloody years ago i was campaigning about this (and global warming, not to say i told you so or anything) and it's STILL a fucking problem. An even bigger one .. even.

An enzyme that eats plastic scares me significantly less than the worm they found that eats it .. old women swallowing flies and all that ... but it's still an awesome premise for a horror movie.

Win/win!
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Re: Scientists create mutant enzyme that eats plastic

Postby pinkeye » 17 Apr 2018, 21:42

mothra wrote:Plastic has made it's way into the most remote places on earth ... and we juct churn out mega-tons every bloody day. 20 bloody years ago i was campaigning about this (and global warming, not to say i told you so or anything) and it's STILL a fucking problem. An even bigger one .. even.

An enzyme that eats plastic scares me significantly less than the worm they found that eats it .. old women swallowing flies and all that ... but it's still an awesome premise for a horror movie.

Win/win!


yeah lets hope so.
Only one sort of plastic, but it is definitely a start.


There was an old lady who swallowed a fly.. I don't know why she swallowed the fly, perhaps she'll die.
there was an old lady who swallowed a spider ,that wriggled and slithered .and ? inside her, perhaps she'll die..
:bgrin

sigh haven't heard that in more years than I care to consider.
sleeping is good for you
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Re: Scientists create mutant enzyme that eats plastic

Postby mothra » 17 Apr 2018, 23:54

pinkeye wrote:

There was an old lady who swallowed a fly.. I don't know why she swallowed the fly, perhaps she'll die.
there was an old lady who swallowed a spider ,that wriggled and slithered .and ? inside her, perhaps she'll die..
:bgrin

sigh haven't heard that in more years than I care to consider.


It's so good, isn't it? A cautionary tale for the ages.
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Re: Scientists create mutant enzyme that eats plastic

Postby pinkeye » 18 Apr 2018, 00:18

mothra wrote:
pinkeye wrote:

There was an old lady who swallowed a fly.. I don't know why she swallowed the fly, perhaps she'll die.
there was an old lady who swallowed a spider ,that wriggled and slithered .and ? inside her, perhaps she'll die..
:bgrin

sigh haven't heard that in more years than I care to consider.


It's so good, isn't it? A cautionary tale for the ages.


yes indeed.
sleeping is good for you
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