Brewing beer

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Brewing beer

Postby HBS Guy » 22 Oct 2017, 03:18

I got asked where my brewing thread was. . .here it is!

Firstly, the brewing, what is involved? Well, think about other brews you do every day, brew a pot of tea or a pot of coffee. That is brewing: boiling a liquid to produce a beverage.

Using boiling water (or wort) is good, kills any bugs in the water.

Brewers, no matter the smallest home brewery set up to the biggest commercial megabrewery all boil their wort. (I am talking, unless specifically stating otherwise, of brewing from grains, not brewing with kits or malt extract. Kits etc have their place—get people into the hobby but they are not BREWERS until they make their beer from grains.)

Boiling the wort sterilises it and concentrates it a bit (usually a couple litres water are boiled off.) For home and craft brewers we add hops to our boil and the boil turns some of the alpha acids in the hops into isoalphacids and these provide the bittering. We need to bitter the beer else it will drink like a can of golden syrup—unfermentable dextrines would make it too sweet.

Before the 1500s a mix of herbs—some carcinogenic!—were sold by the Church but hops are not just better bittering agents they have anti-bacterial properties that helps keep the beer good. The church lost its monopoly and beers could be reduced in strength and still keep for a relatively long time. Hops added late to the boil add nice flavors and aromas.

So far we have discussed three of the four main ingredients of all beers: water, grains and hops. That doesn’t get us that far and certainly wouldn’t get us merry :roll :bgrin Beer is a fermented as well as a brewed beverage so we add yeast to the wort we cooled and ran into our fermenter and let it do its magic, takes about a week for ales.

Now, I mentioned “grains” but left out a qualification: malted grain or malt. Mostly barley but rice, oats, wheat, spelt and rye also get fermented. Barley is the main grain tho. Brewing barley, lower in protein than feed barley. If we crush barley and mix it with hot water we get—starchy water, no use to man or beast.

The grains need to be malted: immersed in water, lifted out at various times and oxygen infused through the mass of wet seeds (Joe White Maltings at Pt Adelaide malts 66 tons of barley at a time) until the germ germinates and sends out rootlets and grows on embryonic stem, the acrospire up the grain. To get the energy to do this the germ activates enzymes that turn the starch in the grain to simple sugars.

We can’t let the process go on for too long or there will be nothing left for the brewer. So at the right stage the grain is spread out and warm air passed through it etc, drying and killing the grain making it possible to store and transport the malt. Some malt gets heated more, roasted to become amber malt, brown malt, chocolate malt or roasted malt, the last two being used mainly in stouts.)

The enzymes are still activated and when a brewer mixes the right proportions of water at the right temperature with a weight of grain and keeps all that warm (hence the need for an esky for my mash tun) for 20 minutes (most homebrewers keep the mix for 60minutes, commercial brewers for 20) the enzymes get to work and convert the remaining starch in the grain into simple sugars and some complex ones (dextrines.)

We can then wash—or lauter or sparge—these sugars out the grains, out the mash tun and into the kettle for the boil.

When you add the first lot of hops the whole neighborhood knows you are brewing :jump the aroma of the hops and much of the flavor is boiled out but the bittering is put in the beer. Later additions add little bitterness but add flavor and aroma.

Can you add other ingredients? Sure!

Belgian brewers used to be taxed on the size of their mash tun, so make them small and add a big hit of sugar to the kettle. Chimay, Westmalle, Duvel etc are the result, very nice ales indeed!

Oats add smoothness to a stout. Oatmalt is available but just as easy is to visit the supermarket and buy some Uncle Toby’s rolled oats. Oats contain lots of betaglucans, gums and a mash with a lot of oats (rolled or malt) will be like a wodge of chewing gum. So we do a small subsidiary mash aka a cereal mash that we let sit at 32°C for 20 minutes, the “betaglucanase rest.”

Wheat—little bit flaked or puffed wheat for head retention, ditto barley, flaked barley gives a grainy flavor and head retention. LOT of malted wheat, up to 75%, makes a wheat beer, a hefeweizen while 40% unmalted wheat gives a wit, a tangier brew than a wheat.

Corn—added as polenta needs a cereal mash but is needed for some American beer styles and does add maltiness.

Rice—pffft tasteless, pure starch and is a bitch to get in a form it is useful in a mash tun. Used in the execrable Budweiser. A beer worse than VB!

Sugar—commercial brewers add far too much, sugar is cheaper than malt and gives a big bang in terms of the extract it adds. I add it to beers of 7%abv or bigger, add a kilo of bluegum honey to my big “Russian Imperial” stouts, dries the beer out. Made from all malt it would be thick and sweet, the honey I add is all fermented out and alcohol is lighter than water so the beer is thinner. A 1125 gravity RIS will ferment to about 1033. I rack it into a keg and keep that in my cellarette for a year when it has fermented down to 1019. A “normal” beer of 5% would ferment down to 1012 final gravity so the RIS still has a lot of body.

So, sugars, especially the more complex sugars add body to a beer. The other texture provided by a good beer is mouthfeel. This is unrelated to body and is provided by proteins. A saison I brewed fermented down to 1002, very dry. Yet it included a kilo of flaked spelt so had a ton of protein.

So I watched the faces of those who I gave a glass of it: puzzlement was writ large :bgrin a beer with no body yet huge mouthfeel!


There we go, a racing introduction to brewing. Once I get my new brewing set up done I will continue the introduction.

At the shop I was really pleased I had two female customers who mash brewed. Why? Alewives used to make the ale for the household (including the big country houses where the housekeeper was expected to brew, using the same copper used for boil the laundry to boil the wort!) and sell the remainder to passing traffic. A tradition (apart from the selling) brought back to life.
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby Cherie » 23 Oct 2017, 15:08

why dont you make tour own speciality Brew Monk- I actually like beer but I dont drink anymore and I havent done for years- if you could make one that does NOT come with a built in bad head next morning I;ll be there- I only ever drank Tequila that didnt make my head hurt-they say the more pure the alcohol the less side effects :smitten :bgrin
Last edited by Cherie on 23 Oct 2017, 15:25, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby HBS Guy » 23 Oct 2017, 15:15

My brews don’t give you a headache. Pure malt brews.
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby Cherie » 23 Oct 2017, 15:28

Very surprised you haven't branded your own craft beer thus far
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby HBS Guy » 23 Oct 2017, 15:49

Homebrew—can’t sell it.

I have sold wort—unfermented beer. Nothing illegal about that.
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby Aussie » 23 Oct 2017, 16:23

HBS Guy wrote:My brews don’t give you a headache. Pure malt brews.


Malt brews taste awful on my palate.
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby HBS Guy » 23 Oct 2017, 17:22

Grains and enzymes. THE important subject for brewers home and megaswill scale.

The main enzymes, the amylase enzymes and how a brewer manipulates mash temperature to end up with a beer of the right body (and alcohol level tho this is not important at a homebrew scale) I will cover in a later post.

In a mash with a lot of oats or rye (rye is rather underappreciated by homebrewers but leave that to a later post) we need to do a betaglucanase rest or our mash will resemble a big wodge of chewing gum. Betaglucans are gums—see any Uncle Toby ad talking about oats removing cholesterol.

We mix 1/3 malted barley—that provides the enzymes—with 2/3 malted or unmalted (flaked or puffed oats or rye.) With rye in particular it is cheaper and better to use flaked rather than malted rye. Add 3 times as much water by weight as the total grains and, stirring well, heat to 42°C. A couple degrees higher doesn’t matter. Now keep the cereal mash (the mash that prepares cereals to go into the main mash) at 42–45°C for at least 20 minutes. Most of the gums should be gone, degraded as we say in brewerspeal.

We could add the cereal mash to the main mash but that would cool down the main mash, not good! Anyway bloody oats and rye are full of bloody protein and a lot of protein is a nightmare for the brewer, so we heat the mash again to the protein rest temperature.

This is not very critical but, stirring again, brewers stir a lot you know, we heat our cereal mash to 50°C or a couple degrees over. Proteolytic enzymes get to work degrading the proteins in the rye/oats. Let it rest at 50°C for 15–20 minutes. There will still be proteins left but the bulk will be degraded.

With oats and rye malted/flaked or puffed we could leave it there but what is the fun of that? None!

So we decoct the cereal mash! That just means we bring the mash to boiling point and boil it for a while, 10 minutes say. Needless to say—more stirring, we don’t want no burnt grains stuffing up our beer, nosirree! We could have our main mash mashed in at a few degrees below our desired mash temperature then stir in our boiled—or decocted in brewerspeak—cereal mash to bring our combined mash to our desired mash temperature.

Lagers tend to decoct more often. Big deal.

Is there a cereal mash that does not need more than one step? Yeah, there is!

Notice I laid stress on oats/rye being flaked (rolled) or puffed or malted? Has to do with how the starch in the grains is organised. In raw grains the starch is rolled up in balls, like a ball made up of many threads. The amylase enzymes that in the mash convert the remaining starch in malt into simple sugars (glucose, maltose and maltotriose) and unfermentable dextrines) work on the ends of the chains of glucose molecules that form starch so when they are all rolled up the enzymes can do little.

The main adjunct (unmalted cereal) that needs a cereal rest is corn! Corn in the form of polenta. It has not been puffed or rolled which gelatinises the starch, i.e. straightens out the chains of glucose molecules which make up starch.

Now, who here does not know the three top US beers (by volume, not taste or worth?)

Budweiser—a rice beer, crap!

Coors—a rice beer, crap!

Miller—a corn beer, not bad for megaswill!

Now, a homebrewer might want to use corn in a beer to emulate a commercial beer or for some other reason. The easiest way is to use polenta. Polenta is ground dried kernels of corn—not puffed or flaked (there are corn flakes but I suspect they are wheat flakes, nobody uses them, not twice anyway.

So, 1/3 malt, 2/3 polenta, stir as you heat it up to 66°C and leave it at 66°C to let the enzymes attack what ends of the starch chains they can then we boil it to gelatinise (straighten) the starch chains and add it to our main mash.

OK, went through some main adjuncts and how they need to be treated if added in significant amounts to a mash. Now, why would we want to add them to a mash?

1. Flaked or puffed wheat or barley: helps head retention, barley adds a nice grainy flavors, can be added to the main mash

2. Oats—as malted oats or rolled (=flaked) oats adds a smooth flavor, used especially in stouts. A betaglucanase and protein rest are useful. Lovely smooth flavor

3. Rye—as rye malt or rolled rye (or puffed but usually available as flaked rye) adds something unexpected: pepperyness! Rye beers are godly, ooohhhh! Flaked rye has a bigger bang for the buck than malted rye.

4. Polenta—adds sugars (glucose, maltose) but no proteins. Adds a malty flavor.

What I have discussed here are mash tun adjuncts. They need some treatment before adding them to the main mash. There are other adjuncts, sugars and syrups, added to the kettle.

Kandi sugar. What Chimay adds to its kettles is a dark syrup. Sugar inverted to increase alcohol without adversely affecting the taste of the beer.

Cane sugar sucks. Oh me, cane sugar REALLY sucks! I had as customers a couple of mortgage brokers, sold them a list of home buyers of some years previous (and so ready and able to move their mortgage to another financier) and I went to their house and got offered some of their “beer” (had opened the brewshop by then.) YUCK! A kit and a kilo of cane sugar (sucrose, a molecule of glucose and one of fructose) and an off-taste a mile wide! Managed to leave 1/3 of the glass untasted! Inverted (honey or Lyle’s Golden Syrup) adds no off taste.

Sugar is only needed with big beers, to dry them out a little bit. Unless you are a Belgian brewer and was taxed on the size of your mash tun! But I love the Belgian ales! Trappist ales like Chimay, Westmalle and Rochefort, Golden Ales like Duvel and Leffe Radieuse (the only Leffe beer worth trying.)

So, clearing up the underbrush we are now up to the main mash and the enzymes at play there and how brewers can manipulate them to achieve the body and alcohol level they want. On a homebrew scale (the only one that matters) alcohol level is unimportant.
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby davo » 23 Oct 2017, 23:13

Meant to ask earlier but forgot When my dad home brewed there was always a little sediment at the bottom why was that?
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby Cherie » 23 Oct 2017, 23:31

davo wrote:Meant to ask earlier but forgot When my dad home brewed there was always a little sediment at the bottom why was that?

good question Davo- but I have home brewed once or twice but just thought I was yeast - the brew we made was enough to take your head off why was this Monk- too much sugar- too long before use?
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby HBS Guy » 23 Oct 2017, 23:35

That was yeast. a half inch to an inch in the fermenter, a film of yeast on the bottom of a bottle.

A bit of yeast is good, helps to prevent hangovers. Does make the beer cloudy if not handled a bit carefully. Think of it as Vegemite :roll :bgrin
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby Cherie » 23 Oct 2017, 23:40

what makes a brew very strong then sugar?
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby HBS Guy » 24 Oct 2017, 00:03

A.G wrote:
davo wrote:Meant to ask earlier but forgot When my dad home brewed there was always a little sediment at the bottom why was that?

good question Davo- but I have home brewed once or twice but just thought I was yeast - the brew we made was enough to take your head off why was this Monk- too much sugar- too long before use?

That would have been kit and kilo beer? Fermented too hot so plenty of fusel alcohols etc. Not much taste I imagine.

You can make tasty beers from kits—but you lose options compared to brewing from grains. Way to proceed is:

1. Brew when it is cool to cold.

2. Keep sucrose for your morning cuppa

3. Buy the freshest kit you can find, just like when buying milk

3. Use 750g dry malt extract cut with 250g dextrose (all dry malt ends in a rather claggy beer)

4. Add the malt extract+dextrose to 2L cold water, stir to dissolve, bring to a boil—add a few hop pellets if you like. Let boil 5 minutes, strain into the fermenter containing the contents of your can of kit, stir, add cold water—pour it from a height, get some air, oxygen, into your wort.

5. When you have topped up the fermenter pitch a packet of proper yeast, Safale 04 or Nottingham if it is cold. Close the fermenter up, put the airlock with some water in it in the grommet in the lid.

6. Should be fermented in a week. Let it stand for another week then bottle. Temp of ferment should not go over 20°C, 18°C is better.

7. Use your hydrometer, your final gravity should be close to 1/4 of your original gravity.

No fusel alchols, a beer with body, a head that stays, and flavor and some aroma and flavor from the hops. Don’t buy hops kept in a fridge or at room temperature, don’t buy yeast not stored in a fridge. (If you bake at home using “packs” take the packets of yeast out and keep them in the fridge, they last for ages that way.)
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby Cherie » 24 Oct 2017, 00:38

well there is my problem I brewed it in weather that was too warm- also I used sugar but the kit called for sugar to be used- I doubt I will make anymore beer ( my partner was actually) but nice to know what happened and why-
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby HBS Guy » 24 Oct 2017, 01:04

Too much sugar, too much heat = brew from hell.
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby HBS Guy » 24 Oct 2017, 23:20

OK, will just concentrate on barley malt and the main mash.

A brewer buys malt from his HBS or wholesaler etc or maltster—depends on the how much beer he regularly brews, home brewer or commercial brewer etc. Remember malt?

We took barley corns and steeped them in water until the germ germinated, readying enzymes to breakdown proteins and starch so they can be transported to where they are needed, the rootlet zone and the acrospire zone. At times the grains are removed from the water and oxygen blasted through them When the barleycorns are sufficiently grown so all the enzymes are activated the grains are dried by warm air being passed through. This kills the grains but keeps the enzymes ready to go again.

The brewer (or his HBS) crushes the grain, passing it through rollers (6 rollers in the case of the West End megaswill brewery, two or three for homebrewers.) We want the grain cracked open not reduced to a fine flour! 1/3 grains that look whole but are cracked, 1/3 reduced to pieces, 1/3 flour. Within the crushed grains are the amylase enzymes.

There are two amylase or starch converting enzymes, alpha and beta amylase (nothing to do with that idiot horseboy from OP!) Alpha chops the starch into chains of up to about 12 glucose molecules, beta converts the chains into single glucose molecules, maltose (2 glucose molecules) maltotriose etc. (The ‘ose’ suffix indicates we are talking about a sugar: sucrose, glucose, fructose (fruit sugar not present in big amounts in a wort) maltose etc.)

Alpha amylase likes higher temperatures, works even in mid seventy degrees celsius while beta works at temperatures in the low 60s degree celsius. Oh dear, what to do, mash hot for a while then lower the mash temperature? Oh dear, what to do!

I like my beers to have lots of body so I mash hot usually, 68–70°C. Alpha amylase happily chops the starch chains into dextrines but what is beta amylase doing? Working really really fast at the high temperatures but eventually it denatures, dies if you like. Alpha amylase keeps creating dextrines which are not fermentable and so put body into the beer.

Some people like dry ales, finish crisp. If they mash at say 60°C then not only are the amylase enzymes activated so are the proteolytic enzymes, stripping proteins from the beer until they denature! No protein no mouthfeel, no head retention. Better is to mash at 62 or even better 64°C.

At the end of the mash we might pour some near boiling water on the mash, raising the temperature to denature the enzymes: we have achieved our desired outcome now want the enzymes to stop working. Running our wort into the kettle and bringing it to a boil helps with this.

OK that sort of sums up brew science, tomorrow I will go through the procedure of doing a mash, boil, chill and run into the fermenter.

After that maybe some brewmath :bgrin :bgrin :bgrin
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby HBS Guy » 24 Oct 2017, 23:28

While setups vary tremendously in detail and scale the science, the brewmath and the mash-boil-chill-runout and pitch are done from the most humble home brew set up to the biggest brewery. The only real difference is megaswill brewers add hop extracts, we homebrewers and craftbrewers add real hops (pellets, plugs or cones aka flowers.)

Big breweries also need to look carefully at the specifications of their malt: they use so much malt that they have to adjust quantities of malts to get the identical brew each time, adjusting for moisture content, malt color, exact extract it will yield and so on. Homebrewers with their small set ups (my biggest mash involved 25Kg of malt, puny compared to a megaswiller with 150,000 litre mash tuns!)
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Re: Brewing beer

Postby HBS Guy » 12 Nov 2017, 23:01

OK, let us go through a brewday.

We have worked out a recipe—explained later—and weighed out the hops, bittering, flavor and aroma additions. Have also weighed out and milled the malt, weighed out any puffed or flaked wheat or barley etc.

Brewday starts with filling the hot liquor tank and maybe adding some salts to create the mash liquor and start the burner to heat the mash liquor. Set up the rest of the system, fill my 10L electric urn, will use the water to preheat the mash tun just before running the mash liquor into it. Also good for making a cup of coffee.

Ok, mash tun preheated, mash liquor run in, time to add the crushed grains. We run them in in a steady stream, stirring as we do. Malt has a funny relationship to water: it doesn’t like it. It forms “dry pockets” (UK usage) or “doughballs” (US usage and descriptive it is) hence we stir and do not just dump the grains in, also why we add mash liquor to the mash tun first.

Once all the grain is in we apply the mash paddle—will upload a picture tomorrow—and push it through the grist, making sure any ‘doughballs’ get broken up so that EVERY BIT of grain is wet. If not—our beer will have a starch haze in it, impossible to remove.

OK, that all done, cover up the mash tun so the heat doesn’t drop off too much, and we run more water into the hot liquor tank: we do not treat this with salts but might add some acid (malic or lactic) so the last sparge is acid enough not to extract nasty flavors from the grains. Also fill the 10L urn again so it boils 10 minutes before the end of our mash. We add this to the mash tun, stir it in. The reason for this “mash out” as it is called is to denature all the enzymes: we have chosen a mash schedule to end up with a beer with the body we want, don’t want the enzymes to keep working after that!

We run all the liquid out of the mash tun. It will be cloudy with bits of grain, pour this back on the top of the “mash bed” and collect the runnings again—may have to recirculate once more before they run clear. For bigger—commercial or hobby—a pump might be used to recirculate this wort. Once clear the wort is added to the kettle

Once that is done, the rest of the sparge liquor is poured carefully over the top of the mash bed, collected and the wort sent to the kettle. Volume, temperature and the pH of the sparge water must be carefully monitored—get disgusting tastes in the wort otherwise.

In the kettle, a 50L pot for homebrewers, 10,000L for microbreweries like the Malt Shovel to 150,000L for megaswill breweries, the total collected wort is brought to a boil and the bittering hops are added. Better make a note of when the first hops were added: sets the schedule for the rest of the boil.

Normally, 28L of wort are collected which boil down to 25L and 22–23L are collected in the fermenter (some deadspace in the kettle and the hops sop up quite a bit of wort.) We have worked out our malt bill, sugar bill (for big beers) and hop bill to give the bitterness/flavor and aroma we want. We also need to work out a water bill: mash liquor, HM of that we recover and the sparge liquor needed to give the full wort volume.

Normally, when I turn the burner off I give the wort in the kettle an almighty stir, creating a “whirlpool” which causes the hops to settle in a pile in the centre of the floor of the kettle: I can then run out the wort through the chiller into the fermenter with not much problem. The biggest megaswill brewery also uses a whirlpool: OK, details differ but the principle is the same.

Yup, homebrewers and giant megaswill breweries use the same brew science (big breweries pay more attention to malt detail, a tiny fluctuation in moisture content in malt can mean big difference in the volume of beer produced. On a homebrew scale—not noticed.

OK, tomorrow I will talk about wort chilling and yeast preparation etc.

A full mash brewday takes about 7 hours but you don’t have to be there every minute.
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